References - Formal



1. Holle, R.L., 1966: Detailed case studies of anomalous winds in jet streams. Master's Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 95 pp.


2. Holle, R.L., 1968: Some aspects of tropical oceanic cloud populations. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 7, 173-183.


3. Johnson, H.M., and R.L. Holle, 1969: Observations and comments on two simultaneous cloud holes over Miami. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 50, 157-161.


4. Holle, R.L., 1971: Effects of cloud condensation nuclei due to fires and surface sources during south Florida droughts. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 10, 62-69.


5. Carpenter, T., R.L. Holle, and J.J. Fernandez-Partagas, 1972: Observed relationships between lunar tidal cycles and formation of hurricanes and tropical storms. Monthly Weather Review, 100, 451-460.

6. Mogil, M., and R.L. Holle, 1972: Anomalous gradient winds: Existence and implications. Monthly Weather Review, 100, 709-716.


7. Holle, R.L., 1974: Populations of parameters related to dynamic cumulus seeding over Florida. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 13, 364-373.

8. Mogil, H.M., and R.L. Holle, 1974: Reply (to comments by Leary). Monthly Weather Review, 102, 258-259.

9. Simpson, R.H., P.K. Govind, and R. Holle, 1974: The GATE dropwindsonde program. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 56, 984-987.


10. Holle, R.L., and S.A. MacKay, 1975: Tropical cloudiness from all-sky cameras on Barbados and adjacent Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 14, 1437-1450.


11. Holle, R.L., 1977: Steam devils over a geyser basin. Monthly Weather Review, 105, 930-932.

12. Holle, R.L., and C. Ronne, 1977: Stereographic cloud analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 58, 823-824.


13. Holle, R.L., J. Simpson, and S.W. Leavitt, 1979: GATE B-scale cloudiness from whole-sky cameras on four U.S. ships. Monthly Weather Review, 107, 874-895.


14. Holle, R.L., and M.W. Maier, 1980: Tornado formation from downdraft interaction in the FACE mesonetwork. Monthly Weather Review, 108, 1010-1028.


15. Cunning, J.B., R.L. Holle, P.T. Gannon, and A.I. Watson, 1982: Convective evolution and merger in the FACE experimental area: Mesoscale convection and boundary layer interactions. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 21, 953-977.

16. Holle, R.L., 1982: Photogrammetry of thunderstorms. Chapter 4 of Volume 3 in Thunderstorms - A Social, Scientific, and Technological Documentary. E. Kessler (editor), U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, 77-98.

17. Wiggert, V., R.I. Sax, and R.L. Holle, 1982: On the modification potential of Illinois summertime convective clouds, with comparison to Florida and FACE observations. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 21, 1293-1322.


18. Holle, R.L., and A.I. Watson, 1983: Duration of convective events related to visible cloud, convergence, radar and rain gage parameters in south Florida. Monthly Weather Review, 111, 1046-1051.


19. Diaz, H.F., and R.L. Holle, 1984: The relative effects of U.S. population shifts (1930-80) on potential heating, cooling and water demand. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 445-448.


20. Diaz, H.F., R.L. Holle, and J.W. Thorn, 1985: Precipitation trends and water consumption related to population in the southwestern United States, 1930-1983. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 24, 145-153.

21. Holle, R.L., and M.C. Diamond, 1985: Four-dimensional holograms from time-lapse cinematography. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 2, 420-423.


22. López, R.E., and R.L. Holle, 1986: Diurnal and spatial variability of lightning activity in northeastern Colorado and central Florida during the summer. Monthly Weather Review, 114, 1288-1312.


23. Watson, A.I., R.E. López, R.L. Holle, and J. R. Daugherty, 1987: The relationship of lightning to surface convergence at Kennedy Space Center: A preliminary study. Weather and Forecasting, 2, 140-157.

24. World Meteorological Organization, 1987: International Cloud Atlas, Volume II. R. Holle (technical editor), Geneva, Switzerland, 212 pp.


25. Holle, R.L., 1988: Photogrammetry of thunderstorms. Chapter 4, Instruments and Techniques for Thunderstorm Observation and Analysis, in Thunderstorms - A Social, Scientific, and Technological Documentary (2nd Edition). E. Kessler (editor), University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 51-63.


26. Caracena, F., R.L. Holle, and C.A. Doswell III, 1989: Microbursts: A handbook for visual identification. U.S. Department of Commerce, Environmental Research Laboratories, National Severe Storms Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, 35 pp.

27. López, R.E., D. Atlas, D. Rosenfeld, J.L. Thomas, D.O. Blanchard, and R.L. Holle, 1989: Estimation of areal rainfall using the radar echo area time integral. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 28, 1162-1175.


28. López, R.E., M.W. Maier, and R.L. Holle, 1991: Comparison of the signal strength of positive and negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in northeastern Colorado. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, 22,307-22,318.

29. Watson, A.I., R.L. Holle, R.E. López, R. Ortiz, and J.R. Nicholson, 1991: Surface wind convergence as a short-term predictor of cloud-to-ground lightning at Kennedy Space Center. Weather and Forecasting, 6,49-64.


30. López, R.E., R.L. Holle, T. Heitkamp, M. Boyson, M. Cherington, and K. Langford, 1993: The underreporting of lightning injuries and deaths in Colorado. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 74, 2171-2178.


31. Holle, R.L., A.I. Watson, R.E. López, D.R. MacGorman, R. Ortiz, and W.D. Otto, 1994: Life cycles of lightning and severe weather in mesoscale convective systems. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 1798-1808.

32. Watson, A.I., R.L. Holle, and R.E. López, 1994: Cloud-to-ground lightning and upper-air patterns during bursts and breaks in the southwest monsoon. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 1726-1739.

33. Watson, A.I., R.E. López, and R.L. Holle, 1994: Diurnal lightning patterns in Arizona during the southwest monsoon. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 1716-1725.


34. Holle, R.L., R.E. López, K W. Howard, J. Vavrek, and J. Allsopp, 1995: Safety in the presence of lightning. Seminars in Neurology, 15, 375-380.

35. López, R.E., and R.L. Holle, 1995: Demographics of lightning casualties. Seminars in Neurology, 15, 286-295.

36. López, R.E., R.L. Holle, and T.A. Heitkamp, 1995: Lightning casualties and property damage in Colorado from 1950 to 1991 based on Storm Data. Weather and Forecasting, 10, 114-126.

37. Watson, A.I., R.L. Holle, and R.E. López, 1995: Lightning from two national detection networks related to vertically integrated liquid and echo-top information from WSR-88D radar. Weather and Forecasting, 9, 592-605.


38. Holle, R.L., and A.I. Watson, 1996: Lightning during two central U.S. winter precipitation events. Weather and Forecasting, 11, 599-614.

39. Holle, R.L., R.E. López, L.J. Arnold, and J. Endres, 1996: Insured lightning-caused property damage in three western states. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 35, 1344-1351.

40. López, R.E., and R.L. Holle, 1996: Fluctuations of lightning casualties in the United States: 1959-1990. Journal of Climate, 9, 608-615.

41. Watson, A.I., and R.L. Holle, 1996: An eight-year lightning climatology of the southeast United States prepared for the 1996 summer Olympics. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77, 883-890.


42. Holle, R.L., and S.P. Bennett, 1997: Lightning ground flashes associated with summer 1990 flash floods and streamflow in Tucson, Arizona: An exploratory study. Monthly Weather Review, 125, 1526-1536.

43. Holle, R.L., R.E. López, K.W. Howard, K.L. Cummins. M.D. Malone, and E.P. Krider, 1997: An isolated winter cloud-to-ground lightning flash causing damage and injury in Connecticut. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78, 437-441.

44. López, R.E., R.L. Holle, A.I. Watson, and J. Skindlov, 1997: Spatial and temporal distributions of lightning over Arizona from a power utility perspective. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 36, 825-831.


45. López, R.E., and R.L. Holle, 1998: Changes in the number of lightning deaths in the United States during the twentieth century. Journal of Climate, 11, 2070-2077.


46. Cooper, M. A., R. Holle, and R. López, 1999: Recommendations for lightning safety. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1132-1133.

47. Holle, R.L., R.E. López, and C. Zimmermann, 1999: Updated recommendations for lightning safety-1998. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 80, 2035-2041.


48. Cooper, M.A., C. Andrews, R.E. López, and R.L. Holle, 2000: Lightning injuries. Wilderness Medicine, 4th Edition. Mosby Yearbook, St. Louis, MO, P. Auerbach, Editor [submitted].

49. Curran, E.B., R.L. Holle, and R.E. López, 2000: Lightning casualties and damages in the United States from 1959 to 1994. Journal of Climate [accepted].