"The Doppler on Wheels (DOW) radars were used during IPEX to observe, with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, the structure of precipitating weather systems in the Intermountain West. The mobility of these observing platforms allowed the IPEX scientists to target, for intensive study, specific areas of precipitation that were presumed to have been affected the greatest by terrain features such as the Wasatch Mountains. For example, one of the DOWs was redeployed midway during IOP 4 in order to study the effects of the Oquirrh and Stansbury Mountains on the heavy snowfall within the Tooele Valley. Complex flow structures -- including vortices of various scales -- were deduced from the Doppler velocity. During four IOPs, radar scans from both DOWs were coordinated such that a retrieval of the full, three-dimensional airflow will be possible. The DOW data will be processed and analyzed during the next few years. These analyses will reveal, in particular, the small-scale vertical-motion patterns on the windward side of the Wasatch that result from the cross-barrier flow."

Jeff Trapp
IPEX Principal Investigator
National Severe Storms Laboratory

"The participating scientists felt that IPEX was a tremendous success. We had the opportunity to examine seven storms in northern Utah and Idaho with detail that we've never had before. On more than one instance, we were very surprised by what we saw with our observing tools: the mobile radars, the supplemental weather balloons, the balloon-borne electric-field meters, and the P-3 research aircraft. In one event, we collected unprecedented observations of a surprise snowstorm in Tooele Valley in northern Utah. In another case, we observed the rapid evolution of a cold front from one where the cold air was several miles deep to one with a pool of cold air less than 1500 feet deep. As we begin to analyze this data, we hope to be able to discover why such rapid frontal evolutions occur and how we can predict them in the future."

David Schultz
IPEX Principal Investigator
National Severe Storms Laboratory

"We had many storms during IPEX that shared similar characteristics, and yet our skill in making short-term predictions varied considerably from event to event. Clearly, there are processes operating on small scales that we don't yet understand. Analysis of the IPEX data set should help us with precisely these issues."

Larry Dunn
IPEX Lead Forecaster
National Weather Service

"One of the exciting aspects of IPEX on a personal level was comparing some of the initial IPEX data with my MS research. Our last Intensive Observing Period (IOP #7) had a frontal structure with mesoscale wave development that looked similar to my MS case study, but with totally different synoptic evolution. Further research may elucidate some of the aspects of mesoscale terrain interaction decoupled from the synoptic scale environment."

Tom Blazek
IPEX Lead Forecaster
University of Utah graduate student

"I found two aspects of my experience to be interesting. First, most weather systems that hit Utah in winter are offshore 24 h earlier, which means such storms come in from the data void of the eastern Pacific. This makes forecasting them 24 h ahead pretty much a model-dependent exercise. Second, the type of terrain in the area makes the local weather highly variable and quite difficult to forecast. I came away with an enhanced appreciation for the challenges of forecasting in the region."

Chuck Doswell
IPEX Forecaster
National Severe Storms Laboratory

"It's ironic that the very same mountains which act to so profoundly alter the distribution of precipitation across much of the western U.S. also block our ability to observe these finescale weather changes using conventional ground-based observing equipment. During IPEX, scientists from NSSL directed a specially instrumented NOAA P-3 research aircraft during storm flights over and around several key mountain ranges within the Great Basin, focusing on the region around Salt Lake City. By virtue of the elevated perspective afforded by the P-3 and its scanning Doppler radar, we gained a highly comprehensive view of precipitation and airflow patterns surrounding complex mountainous terrain during a number of heavy snowfall events."

Brad Smull
IPEX Aircraft Scientist
National Severe Storms Laboratory

"I thought I would give you some info for NSSL S-Band radar data collection. We haven't begun analysis of the data, yet. However, I collected 1 Gb of data during our stay in SLC. We observed air motions and reflectivity from clouds producing rain, snow, and graupel at very fine temporal and spatial (60 m) resolutions. We also interacted with ski patrol employees at Snow Basin ski resort. They helped us maintain in-situ observations placed on the mountain."

J.J. Gourley
IPEX Radar Scientist
University of Oklahoma and National Severe Storms Laboratory

"I wanted to pass on a big thank you for inviting SPC to participate in IPEX. This was an extremely valuable experience that ranks second to none in my career. I was pleased to be involved in a couple of IOPs including a severe weather event. It is always nice to travel and become familiar with the lay of the land, local forecast knowledge and even meeting face-to-face with the forecasters. I feel extremely fortunate to have been involved with such a useful project/fine group of forecasters and scientists. And, yes, the highlight of my trip was taking part in the P3 flight prior to my leaving there. That experience will stick with me through my career for sure!

Thanks again to everyone involved (including NWS folks)!"

Jon Racy
IPEX Forecaster
Storm Prediction Center

"I just wanted to thank you for the opportunity I had to participate in IPEX. It was really interesting to get some experience with the instrumentaion and actual storm research. I was able to talk to the different people about their jobs and it was interesting to see the specialization of each person. I will probably understand more about what I did in the future, but it was a great experience for me to draw back on. It has also helped me make a few decisions as to what I want to do in the future. Thanks again."

Brooke Chisholm
University of Utah undergraduate meteorology student

"I did not expect all the P.I.s to be so WILLING to take time to teach and train us about the equipment and your jobs while actively doing your jobs. You are all so friendly-- {{{ -sunny- }}} --and approachable, I won't forget that. Thanks!"

Bobi Fox
University of Utah undergraduate meteorology student