PACS-SONET WORKSHOP 2003

 

Asuncion, Paraguay, August 2003
 
Contents
 

Introduction             ........................................................................ 2

 

Participants             ........................................................................ 4

 

Chapter 1. Summary         ............................................................. 7

 

Chapter 2:  Budget                        ............................................................. 10

 

Chapter 3:  Pilot balloon network          ………................……….. 13

 

Chapter 4:  Radiosonde network          …………………………… 20

 

Chapter 5:  Education       …………………………………………… 25

 

Chapter 6:  PACS-SONET web page and communications ..… 31

 

Chapter 7:  Logistics         …………………………………………… 39

 

Chapter 8: Support from Local Institutions    (SPANISH) ……... 48

 

Final Proposal         …………………………………………………… 54

 


INTRODUCTION

 

The PACS-SONET is a network of pilot balloon stations in Latin America that is supported by NOAA to help monitor the climate variability through measurement of lower-middle tropospheric winds in data sparse regions. The observations, transmitted in near real-time, can also be used for weather forecasting activities.

 

The PACS-SONET has recently been extended for 3 additional years. A workshop was planned and held in Asuncion, Paraguay, during the last week of August 2003. This workshop brought together representatives from the institutions that are participating in either the logistical support, research activities related to, or forecasting uses of the PACS-SONET observations. The purpose of the workshop was to more clearly define PACS-SONET activities over the next several years. The following topics were discussed:

 

 

1)     Improvement of the efficiency of the observational network.

 

2)     Ways to stimulate the use of the PACS-SONET observations for both forecasting and research in the participating countries.

 

3)     Alternative strategies for making upper-air observations and incorporating radiosonde-type observations into the network.

 

4)     Educational activities to stimulate more widespread use of the network’s data.

 

5)     Further institutional participation in PACS-SONET to ensure long-term sustainability.

 

Among the participants in the workshop, there were not only members of institutions providing logistical support to the project in the countries, but also faculty members and students from research institutions in Argentina (Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA), Ecuador (Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL) and Brazil (Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos, CPTEC). Continued and stronger collaboration between the project and these institutions is expected as an outcome of the workshop.

 

The participants returned to their countries with a clearer idea of what needs to be accomplished to ensure continued development of the PACS-SONET in Latin America. Specifically, the following objectives were achieved:

 

 

1)     Participants became familiar with every aspect of the PACS-SONET web site,

 

2)     learned how to maintain the meteorological theodolites in reasonable operating conditions,

 

3)     learned how to supervise the quality controlling of the pilot balloon data through the program “corrige”,

 

4)     have a closer idea of what is involved in making radiosonde observations and their cost, and

 

5)     saw a demonstration of the basic principles of radiosonde measurements made by the powersonde system. This is a recoverable radiosonde system that was partly demonstrated during the workshop.

 

This document describes the different activities and presents a summary of the discussions that took place during the workshop.


PARTICIPANTS
 

Argentina

 

Dra. Ana Graciela Ulke

 

 

 

 

UBA

Dpto. De Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos

Faculty / Researcher

 

 

 

Pabellon II - Piso 2 - Ciudad Universitaria (1428) , Buenos Aires , Argentina

 

 

54 11 4576 3356 int. 24

 

54 11 4576 3356 int. 12

ulke@at1.fcen.uba.ar

 

WEB:   www-atmo.at.fcen.uba.ar

 

 

Paula Gonzalez

 

 

 

 

UBA

Dpto. De Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos

Student

 

 

 

 

Pabellon II - Piso 2 - Ciudad Universitaria (1428) , Buenos Aires , Argentina

 

 

 

paulalmg@yahoo.com.ar

 

WEB:   www-atmo.at.fcen.uba.ar

 

 

 

Bolivia

 

Met.Roberto Catacora

 

 

 

AASANA

 

 

 

Chief of the Meteorology Division of AASANA

Aeropuerto Alto La Paz , La Paz, Bolivia

 

 

591 02 282 2079

 

 

 

catacora_roberto@hotmail.com

 

 

 

Met. Edwin Rodriguez D.

 

 

 

AASANA / UADASC

 

 

Chief of the Meteorology Division of AASAÑA, Santa Cruz Region

Urbanizacion Paraiso, Calle Gladiolos No 9

Santa Cruz, Bolivia

 

591 03 356 8455

 

591 03 385 2067

 

griphy_erd@hotmail.com

 

 

 

 

Brasil

 

MS. Wagner Rodrigues Soares

 

 

CPTEC / INPE

Depart. De Modelagem e Desenvolvimento

Graduate student

 

 

Rodovia Presidente Dutra km. 40

(12630-000)

Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brasil

 

55 12 3186 8551

 

55 12 3101 2835

 

wsoares@cptec.inpe.br

 

WEB:  www.cptec.inpe.br

 

 

Colombia

 

SJ Oscar H. Linares P.

 

 

 

CIOH

 

 

 

Chief of Weather Forecast Section

 

Isla de Manzanilla, Escuela Naval de Cadetes "Almirante Padilla" Casilla de Correo 942, Cartagena, Colombia

 

olinares@cioh.org.co

 

WEB: www.cioh.org.co

 

 

Ecuador

 

Oc. Lina Barrazueta

 

 

ESPOL Facultad de Maritima

Oceanographer

Projects Office

 

Km. 30.5 Via Perimetral PO Box 09-01-5863 Guayaquil, Ecuador

593 42269 450

 

593 42269 468

lbarrazu@hotmail.com

 

WEB: www.espol.edu.ec

Met. Antonio Rodriguez

 

INAMHI

 

Weather Forecast Office -

PACS-SONET Coordinator

Inhaquito 700 y Corea, Quito, Ecuador

593 22433 934

b2d4y1@yahoo.com

WEB: www.inamhi.org.ec

 

Mexico

 

Met. Alfonso Gonzalez

 

 

SEMAR

 

 

Chief of Observational Network Office

Eje 2, tramo HENM , Colonia Los Cipreses Del. Coyoacan, Mexico D.F., Mexico

55 56246500 ext. 1229/1230/1242

semar06@prodigy.net.mx

f_belmonte74@hotmail.com

 

 

 

Nicaragua

 

Ing. Sandra Toval C.

 

 

INETER

 

 

Coordinator Synoptic Met Technical Branch

 

Km. 11.5 Carretera Norte, Aeropuerto Internacional, Managua, Nicaragua

505 233 3408

 

 

tovalcs@yahoo.es

 

 

 

Paraguay

 

Lic. Julian Baez B.

 

 

DMH DINAC

 

 

 Manager

Technical Branch

 

Francisco Lopez No 1080 y De La Conquista , Asuncion, Paraguay

595 21 425046

 

 

jbaez@foroagua.org.py

 

 

Met. Lourdes Elizabeth Rodriguez Rolandi

 

DMH DINAC

 

 

Forecaster

 

Aeropuerto Internacional "Silvio Pettirossi" , Asuncion, Paraguay

595 21 646095

 

595 21 646095

ler_rolandi@yahoo.com

 

 

Met. Eduardo Mingo

 

 

DMH DINAC

 

 

Forecaster

Aeropuerto Internacional "Silvio Pettirossi" , Asuncion, Paraguay

 

 

Lic. Fernando P. Barrios

 

 

 

LIAPA

Universidad

Nacional de

Asuncion

Faculty / Researcher

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peru

 

Ing. Luis Flores C.

 

 

 

Laboratorio

de Fisica Universidad de Piura (UDEP)

Faculty / Researcher

 

 

Av. Ramon Mugica No 131 , Urbanizacion San Eduardo, El Chipe, Apartado Postal 353,  Piura, Peru

51 73 307777 anexo 4630

 

51 73 308888

lflores@udep.edu.pe

 

 

 

Mayor F.A.P.

Sergio Gastelo S.

 

 

SENAMHI

 

 

 

Director of Technical Operations Office

 

Jr. Cahuide 785, Jesus Maria, Lima 11 , Peru

 

 

51 1 98474045

51 1 2511068

 

 

sgastelo@senamhi.gob.pe

 

 

 

T.I.P. F.A.P.

Jorge Luis Tapia Gil

 

SENAMHI

 

 

Meterology Division

Jr. Cahuide 785, Jesus Maria, Lima 11 , Peru

 

51 1 4704863

51 1 6141414

 

jtapia@senamhi.gob.pe jortagil@hotmail.com

 

Carmen Reyes Bravo

 

SENAMHI

Dir. Climatologia

Research Assistant

Jr. Cahuide 785, Jesus Maria, Lima 11 , Peru

 

creyes@senamhi.gob.pe

 

 

USA

 

Dr. Michael Douglas

 

 

NSSL

 

 

Research Meteorologist

 

 

1313 Halley Circle

Norman, OK 73069

 

1 405 3660525

 

michael.douglas@noaa.gov

WEB:

www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/pacs

Ing. Javier Murillo

 

 

CIMMS & University of Oklahoma

Research Associate

 

1313 Halley Circle

Norman, OK 73069

 

1 405 3660524

 

 

Javier.murillo@noaa.gov

WEB:

www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/pacs

MS. John F. Mejia

 

 

CIMMS & University of Oklahoma

Graduate student / Research Assistant

1313 Halley Circle

Norman, OK 73069

 

1 405 3660519

 

 

John.mejia@noaa.gov

WEB:

www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/pacs

Met. Jose M. Galvez

 

 

CIMMS & University of Oklahoma

Graduate student / Research Assistant

1313 Halley Circle

Norman, OK 73069

 

1 405 3660525

 

 

Jose.galvez@noaa.gov

WEB:

www.nssl.noaa.gov/projects/pacs

 

Venezuela

 

MT3 (Av.)

Julio Cesar Cabanerit

 

Servicio de Meteorologia de la Aviacion

Weather Forecast Office -

PACS-SONET

Coordinator

Avenida Bolivar Este - Edificio El Prado P. B. , Caracas, Venezuela

58 243 2324736

58 243 378043

 

jcfav@hotmail.com


CHAPTER 1.  Summary
 

The venue of the workshop was the ranch “La Quinta”, an isolated location 50 miles southeast from Asuncion, Paraguay. The facilities in this place included a conference room with good Internet connectivity. A military airstrip, located 10 miles from “La Quinta”, was available for powersonde demonstrations.

 

The workshop started on the 25th and concluded on the 31st of August. 23 participants from 9 countries attended the workshop. Several students from the Universidad Nacional de Asuncion and members of the local model airplane club also participated in some of the activities.

 

The agenda included presentations on the PACS-SONET project, the project’s budget, the status of the network, quality control of the observations, expansion of the network due to the South American Low-Level Jet Experiment (SALLJEX), and simple techniques for using the PACS-SONET data in applied research, among others.

 

Specialized working groups spent a large amount of time discussing topics such as: optimal utilization of the available resources, optimal network design, identification of areas with low-density of radiosonde stations suitable for implementation of radiosonde sites, possible solutions to the network’s logistic problems, development of a component within the project oriented to educational activities, and improvements to the web page to optimize the general public’s access to information on the project.

 

Towards the end of the workshop the participants helped put together a draft of this document, in order to initially describe the discussions that took place during the workshop, its results and proposed future activities.

 

Among the recommendations, stands the establishment of 6 additional pilot balloon sites and two radiosonde stations, all of them with support from PACS-SONET. A new pilot balloon station in Serranilla, Colombia would enhance the density of the network over the Caribbean region and would help better depict the variability of the trade winds. Another station in Malpelo (4N, 82W), a Colombian island in the Pacific Ocean, would help study the ITCZ, the southerly trade winds variability and the structure of the Panama Semi-permanent Low. The Centro de Investigaciones Oceanograficas e Hidrograficas (CIOH) in Cartagena, Colombia would be in charge of operating these stations.

 

 

 

 

 

It was recommended that 3 new pilot balloon stations be established in Peru and operated by the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrologia (SENAMHI). Three members of the SENAMHI participated in the discussions and supported the proposal. The new stations would be established in Iquitos, Pucallpa and Puerto Maldonado, all of them in eastern Peru. Iquitos data would contribute to the study of easterly waves, mesoscale convective systems and rainy episodes over the Ecuadorean and North Peruvian Andes. Pucallpa and Puerto Maldonado would provide additional data for studies on the low-level jet east of the Andes, wet periods in the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes, and surges of cold-air masses from high latitudes into the tropics. The pilot balloon soundings at Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado will supplement the radiosonde observations that, due to budget constraints, are being made only once every other day at these stations.

 

It is proposed that another radiosonde site be established in Santa Cruz, Bolivia to alleviate in part the lack of radiosonde observations in the region. Its purpose would be to help better describe the low-level jet east of the Andes, the incursions of southerly cold-air masses and the flux of moisture into the Altiplano. The station would be operated by AASANA, which is the airport administration authority in Bolivia. The weather service in Bolivia recently received a donation from Spain to modernize its observational networks and its forecast office. Depending on the deployment of new stations as part of their modernization plan, PACS-SONET-supported radiosonde observations might not be necessary in Santa Cruz.

 

It was proposed by the Argentine participants that the University of Buenos Aires operate two pilot balloon stations in Santiago del Estero and Tostado. The plan is for the stations to operate during 6 months every year, beginning in the month previous to the start of the rainy season. The sites would be closely supervised by the UBA and data are expected to have high quality. Also, immediate use of the data for research is guaranteed. Recent personal communication with UBA faculty members indicates, however, that these stations could not start operations before September-October 2004.

 

On other subjects, the participants agreed that some amount must be set aside from the budget for the purpose of holding a workshop every two years. This opinion departs from the original plan of holding meetings every year. The meeting-workshop would be international in nature and would be celebrated in a central location to minimize airfare costs. Suggested locations to hold the meeting included Quito, Ecuador and Lima, Peru. It was estimated that 23 persons would participate in upcoming workshops, including 2 from the USA, 12-14 representatives from approximately the same number of participating countries and 5 persons from within the host country. 2 more participants would be specially invited to present examples of applied research using PACS-SONET data. It was recommended that the overall cost of the workshop be kept within $20,000.

 

After consideration of the above expenditures, it was noticed that savings in the amount of $15,000 would be available for educational activities. It is not clear at this point how these funds will be specifically utilized, but different options are presented in the chapter devoted to education (Chapter 5).

 

 

 

2.  BUDGET
 

Budget disbursment is important since the rest of the activities depend on a good distribution of the available funds. The participants in the workshop spent a significant amount of time reorienting and defining the different components of the project within the frame of the available resources.

 

2.1. Overall budget

 

PACS-SONET asked for $309,690 to cover expenses during FY04. Since this amount includes NSSL’s indirect costs (35%) of $80,290, then the actual spendable budget is $229,400. Salaries for the project’s coordinator including fringe benefits and CIMMS’ overhead is a fixed expenditure of ~$69,000. A small amount of $5k is set aside for travel to establish/oversee the network. As a consecuence, the total available for observations ends up being only $155,400. This amount is all we have left to cover the observational network, balloon purchases, educational activities and miscellaneous or incidental costs. It was noticed that a significant amount of flexibility is allowed in spending this money. The challenge for the group was to prepare a proposal that would optimize the use of the available (flexible) resources by redesigning the pilot balloon network, allow for additional radiosonde observations and still make savings that would be wisely spent in educational activities.

 

The original distribution of the so called “flexible budget” was such that $71,400 was put into making observations (this usually means money transfers to the countries), $24,000 was set aside for balloon purchases and shipping and $60,000 for educational activities (2 workshops at $30k each) (Table 1.)

 

 

Original

FIXED

 

Salaries

69,000

Travel

5,000

VARIABLE

0

Observations

71,400

Balloons + shipping

24,000

Workshop/Educational

60,000

TOTAL

229,400

 

 

NSSL’s indirect costs

80,290

TOTAL PACS-SONET

309,690

Table 1. Original PACS-SONET budget presented to the participants.

 

The last item in the list of variable expenses in Table 1. is designated as “Workshop/educational”. However, this represents the only available money for all of the project’s supplementary activities, the most relevant of those being the educational component. Out of this money, workshops, meetings, and miscellaneous valuable activities that contribute towards the goals of the project, must be paid for. For that reason this item is further broken into the following categories in Table 2: incidentals, biannual (instead of annual) workshop, radiosonde network, and educational activities.

 

 

 

 

Original

Proposed

FIJO

 

 

Salary

69,000

69,000

Travel

5,000

5,000

VARIABLE

 

 

Observations

71,400

77,042

Balloons + shipping

26,200

26,200

Incidentals

5,000

5,000

Bi-annual workshop

(Anual) 30,000

10,000

Radiosondes

0

20,000

Educational activities

22,800

17,157.7

TOTAL DISPONIBLE

229,400

229,400

 

 

 

NSSL’s indirect costs

80,290

80,290

TOTAL PACS-SONET

309,690

309,690

Tabla 2. Detailed PACS-SONET proposed budget prepared during the workshop.

 

The final, modified  budget is presented in the last column in Table 2, so it can be compared against the initial distribution.

 

In the original budget, the plan was for $30k to be spent in a workshop and no radiosonde observations were anticipated. The workshop’s proposal calls for a biannual workshop and the savings are put into the operation of special radiosonde stations. Besides, the available funds for pilot balloon observations have also been increased. As It will be shown in the next section, the additional cost of operating 6 new pibal stations is only ~5.6k per year, or about 2.5% of the PACS-SONET actual spendable budget.

 

The new proposed budget has ~25% less money for educational activities compared to the original. The enhancements to the network, however, are substantial for a relatively small cut in education. The final amount set aside for this component totals $17.2k. Further saving can be achieved with better logistics arrangements in the operation of the pilot balloon network and those savings could be also passed on to educational activities.

 

 


2.2. Budget for pilot balloon observations.

 

Table 3 shows the detailed budget for pilot balloon observations as originally planned. Costs of balloon purchases and shipping are not included, but only the money that would be transferred to each country per year and the intended covered activities. Operation of 7 new stations at Malpelo, Serranillla, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Puerto Maldonado, Santiago del Estero and Tostado is assumed.

 

 

Country

Gas and cyl

Admin. costs

Telephone

Internet

Utilities & use

Equipment

Shipping

Incidentals

Total

 

STN

transportation

& compensations

 

 

 of facilities

maintenance

& duties

 

 

Mexico sm

7

0

3960

6600

2760

0

0

2040

0

15360

Nicaragua

1

2300

3900

0

0

0

0

300

0

6500

Colombia

2

1920

1000

0

0

0

0

500

0

3420

Venezuela

2

0

1000

0

800

0

0

0

0

1800

Ecuador

1

0

1500

1200

600

3500

1500

200

360

8860

Peru

5

2558

3246

0

515

0

0

0

172

6491

Bolivia

5

11333

6060

180

700

0

0

0

300

18573

Paraguay

2

960

2700

0

0

0

0

0

300

3960

Argentina

2

8870

3208

0

0

0

0

0

0

12078

TOTAL

27

27941.33

26574

7980

5375

3500

1500

3040

1132

77042.3

Table 3. Final budget proposed including new pilot balloon stations.

 

Bolivia and México are the countries where the largest amounts have to be transferred every year. However, these countries operate more stations than the others. To illustrate this, Table 4 shows the costs per observation for each country in order to more objectively evaluate the feasibility of establishing a new station in that country.

 

 

Country

Cost per observation US$

Mexico sm

2.2

Venezuela

2.5

Peru

3.6

Paraguay

5.4

Colombia

6.7

Argentina

8.3

Bolivia

9.5

Nicaragua

9.3

Ecuador

24.3

Table 4. Estimated costs per observation.

 

Observations are relatively cheap in México, Venezuela and Peru at less than $5 per observation. Costs are relatively high in Argentina, Bolivia and Nicaragua. The most expensive observations are made in Ecuador due to requests from the country that the costs of utilities at San Cristobal, Galapagos be assumed by the project. It has to be mentioned that helium is the only gas available for balloon inflation in Bolivia and Paraguay. Helium is expensive in these countries and that adds up to the costs per observation. The costs per observation carried significant weight among the different aspects considered for the design of the proposed network.


3.     PILOT BALLOON NETWORK
 

The current PACS-SONET comprises 22 pilot balloon stations in Latin America from northwestern Mexico to Paraguay (Figure 1.) The operation of this network provides additional observations in the Pan American Region in order to fill in the holes in the radiosonde network.

Figure 1. PACS-SONET pilot balloon stations in August 2003.  The Managua and Estigarribia sites were not operating due to lack of funds.

Every station has a unique role in the network. The stations in southeastern Mexico and the Managua site have a focus on the study of easterly waves and the strong winds flowing from the Atlantic to the Pacific due to gaps in the topography (gap winds). The stations in northwestern Mexico focus on studies of the North American monsoon and the low-level jet along the Gulf of California. These observations will be relevant for the upcoming field experiment in the region (NAME). The relevance of the stations in Bolivia and Paraguay is centered in the South American monsoon, with a specific focus on the low-level jet east of the Andes (SALLJ), mesoscale convective complexes and the influence of frontal systems passage and cold air incursions into equatorial latitudes.

 

Although the current network is providing valuable data, there are deficiencies that have to be addressed, specially regarding the geographic distribution of the stations and the frequency of the observations. The main objective of this chapter is to suggest changes to the network that argueably will minimize those deficiencies.

 

An analysis of the network’s current status is included, along with some initial specific proposals and a final proposal, in which a map of the new pilot balloon network is attached. The radiosonde network is described in Chapter 4.

 

3.1 Pilot balloon network current status.

           

3.1.1       Argentina

 

Argentina is not presently operating any PACS-SONET stations. This country operated 8 pilot balloon stations during SALLJEX (November 2002 thru February 2003).

 

3.1.2       Bolivia

 

 

Bolivia became involved in PACS-SONET in 1999 and, since 2000, 6 stations are being operated in this country. The stations are being operated by AASANA (Airport Administration and Aeronautical Navigation Auxiliary Services). The stations are operated out of 3 airports and 3 secondary stations where the pilot balloon observations are carried out. During SALLJEX, AASANA operated also a pilot balloon station at Villamontes. It is expected that the observations will be continued at a nearby location (Yacuiba) to partly alleviate the low density of upper-air stations in that sector of the country. The funds to operate Yacuiba will e provided by AASANA.

 

3.1.3       Brazil

 

Brazil is not presently operating PACS-SONET stations. The Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos (CPTEC) in Brazil operated 4 pilot balloon stations during SALLJEX. CPTEC has shown interest in the project and participated in the workshop and in previous activities. The Brazilian weather service (INMET) has also been approached and collaboration with them is promising in the near future.

 

 

3.1.4       Colombia

 

The Centro de Investigaciones Oceanográficas e Hidrográficas (CIOH) in Colombia operates one station in Cartagena making once daily soundings.

There have been personnel problems in this station and less than 10 observations per month have been made in the past 6 months.

 

 

3.1.5       Ecuador

 

Ecuador has been operating one pilot balloon station in San Cristóbal, Galápagos since 1997. The reliability of this station has been intermittent most of the time. Observations in this site are of great importance for the PACS-SONET research and it is necessary to assure more reliable operation.

 

 

3.1.6       Mexico

           

 

The Mexican Navy is operating 7 pilot balloon stations in Mexico. Six of these stations transmit their data in real time and all of them make twice daily observations. The most recent addition is the site operating from the naval school in Anton Lizardo, Veracruz. The Mexican navy (Secretaria de Marina Armada de Mexico, SEMAR) requested the station to be established primarily for educational purposes, but observations are also made on an operational basis and data is transmitted in real time from the site.

 

3.1.7       Nicaragua

 

The national meteorological service (Direccion de Meteorologia - INETER) in Nicaragua has been operating the pilot balloon station in the airport of Managua since April 1997. Starting in June 2000, twice, instead of once, daily observations were made during the rainy seasons of 2000, 2001 and 2002.The station has not been active during 2003 because funds have not been available from the project. Funds have been recently transferred to INETER and the station is expected to resume operations shortly. Data from Managua is valuable to better estimate the synoptic variability of the gap flow across the Central American Cordillera.

 

 

3.1.8       Paraguay

 

Two stations were established in late 1999 in Paraguay. Asuncion is reliable, but the observations in Mariscal Estigarribia (22S, 60W) have been intermittent most of the time. Both stations performed very well during SALLJEX. Mariscal Estigarribia stopped after the experiment and has just resumed operations (October 1) with motivated and more capable observers. Efforts to modernize the meteorological infrastructure and emergency management capabilities in Paraguay have led to the acquisition of a radiosonde system that has been installed in Mariscal Estigarribia. However, shortly after its installation the hydrogen generator failed and, for this reason, radiosondes haven’t been launched since the equipment was installed more than 12 months ago.

 

 

3.1.9       Peru

 

There are two pilot balloon stations in Peru. The site in Piura has been part of the PACS-SONET since May 1997. The University of Piura oversees the station, which is one of the most reliable of the network. Arequipa was a pibal site during SALLJEX and in July 2003 it became a PACS-SONET station with support from the SENAMHI.

 

 

3.1.10  Venezuela

 

 

 

 

Venezuela has been operating two pilot balloon stations, one in San Fernando de Apure and the other in Ciudad Bolivar. San Fernando is reliable and provides good quality data. On the other hand, unreliable gas supply and communication problems at Ciudad Bolivar are causes of this station’s poorer performance. The problems at Ciudad Bolivar were addressed during the workshop and possible solutions were suggested  (see next section.)

 

 

 

3.2       Participant’s suggestions to improve the network.

 

3.2.1   Argentina.

 

It was suggested by the Argentine participants that the University of Buenos Aires operate two pilot balloon stations in Santiago del Estero and Tostado. The plan is for the stations to operate during 6 months every year, beginning in the month previous to the start of the rainy season. The sites would be closely supervised by the UBA and data are expected to have high quality. Also, immediate use of the data for research would be guaranteed. The purpose of these stations is linked to the study of the LLJ, severe storms in the region and frontal advance. Data will be assimilated into numerical models for verification of the impact of these additional observations in the accuracy of the forecasts. This suggestion was accepted for inclusion in the final proposal. 

 

 

3.2.2   Colombia.

 

Colombia suggested the establishment of two new pilot balloon stations; one in Banco de Serranilla in the Caribbean coast and the other in Malpelo Island in the Pacific side. Arrangements are being made with local authorities and permission has been requested for the installation.

The purpose of the new station in Serranilla responds to local interest on the study of the behavior of the trade winds, easterly waves, and the atmospheric influence exerted by cold fronts of polar origin over the Caribbean region. With the new station located in Malpelo Island, valuable information would be recorded for the study of the southerly cross-equatorial flow, the Panama Semi-permanent Low and the El Niño and La Niña phenomena.

 

This suggestion has been considered for inclusion in the final proposal, except for the inclusion of Isla Malpelo as a potential radisonde site, as explained in Chapter 4.

 

3.2.3   Ecuador.

 

Ecuador recommended to resume launchings at Izobamba, an Andean location north of Quito; this time with emphasis on the rainy season. This station’s objective would be to acquire data to facilitate identification of circulation patterns related to the presence of thunderstorms in the region.

Participants recognized the value of the proposal, but because of the high operation costs involved, it was mentioned that PACS-SONET might not be able to afford the Izobamba soundings. It was not included in the final proposal.

 

 

 


3.2.4   Peru.

 

The Peruvian participants proposed daily launchings in Pucallpa and 3-weekly in both Puerto Maldonado and Iquitos.

 

The scientific objective of the Pucallpa site would be to supplement the LLJ studies in the upstream region, studies on entrance of frontal systems into low latitudes, as well as studies on the evaluation of the moisture transport from the Amazon basin into the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes.

 

The objective of the Puerto Maldonado and Iquitos sites would be to obtain a daily database of winds aloft, which would supplement the radiosonde observations made at these sites by the Peruvian weather service (SENAMHI). Because of budget constrains the observations are currently made only every other day. Data from Puerto Maldonado would contribute to studies of the LLJ and the entrance of frontal systems into low latitudes. Data from Iquitos would contribute to the study of convective periods in the western Amazonia, mesoscale convective systems and the moisture fluxes associated to rainy periods over the Ecuadorean and North-Peruvian Andes.

 

This proposal was considered within the final proposal.

 

 

3.2.5   Venezuela.

 

The Venezuelan representative proposed the relocation of the site at Ciudad Bolivar due to problems with frequent cloudiness and unreliable data transmission. Among the alternatives, four locations were mentioned: Calabozo, Barinas, Puerto Ayacucho and Isla de Aves; the later is a small island that woud be an ideal location for wind observations. It would be necessary, however, to obtain help and authorization from the Venezuelan Navy in order to get access to the island. On the other hand, Isla de Aves is in the Caribbean region, where the radiosonde network is relatively dense. It was mentioned that the next best location would be Puerto Ayacucho.

 

                   

3.3    Final Proposal.

 

The participants considered the initial proposals in order to design the new PACS-SONET pilot balloon network, which included the sites currently in operation as well as 6 additional stations: Tostado and Santiago del Estero in Argentina, Serranilla in Colombia; Iquitos, Pucallpa and Puerto Maldonado in Peru (Fig.  2).

 

The analysis was done considering the available budget and the costs per observation in each country. Although the Argentine proposal has been temporarily accepted based on the geographical location of the stations proposed, this possibility continues to be evaluated due to the high costs involved in making pilot balloon observations in this country.

 

 

Fig. 2. Pilot balloon network proposed during the workshop. The small circles represent the current network stations. Big circles represent stations proposed during the workshop.


 

Chapter 4:  Radiosonde network

 

4.1.        Importance of radiosonde measurements

 

Radiosonde measurements are of extreme importance by their contribution to the knowledge of the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere, unlike pilot balloons that only contribute to the knowledge of the atmospheric circulations. 

 

Although there is a significant number of radiosonde stations in Latin America, most of these are located in the region of the Caribbean due to the relevance of the atmospheric conditions in this zone to the forecast of  tropical cyclones that affect the United States.  The central regions of South America have a small number of radiosonde stations, which results in a deficient representation of the thermodynamic profiles in the global analyses, which in turn affects the climate and weather forecasts in the region.

 

4.2. Current role of PACS-SONET in the radiosonde network

 

Some PACS-SONET stations operated as radiosonde sites during SALLJEX. However, these stations returned to their previous mode after the experiment ended in February 2003.  Currently, radiosonde observations are not being made from PACS-SONET sites.

 

PACS-SONET has been considering the possibility of implementing radiosonde observations at key sites.  A careful analysis of the possibilities considering the budget limitations was done by the group.

 

 

4.3.Suggestions to optimize the radiosonde network

 

Figure 3 shows the current radiosonde network in the Latin America and the Caribbean region.

 

Some of the main gaps in the radiosonde network are in the Northwestern region of South America (Panama, Colombia and Ecuador) and in the Chaco region (Paraguay, Bolivia and northern Argentina).  Implementing radiosonde observations in these regions would have the largest  impact in the current radiosonde network coverage.

 

Figure 3. Radiosonde network (open circles) in Latin America and the Caribbean, PACS-SONET current pilot balloon network (solid dots) and proposed PACS-SONET sites (stars). Iquitos is currently a radiosonde station making 4-weekly launches. The radiosonde station at Veracruz (20 km northwest of Anton Lizardo) is not shown in the map.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Implementation of radiosonde observations in Iquitos (additional ones with support from PACS-SONET), Santa Cruz, Mariscal Estigarribia, Managua and Malpelo Island was considered during the workshop. See fig. 4.

 

The justification for each station is given below.

 

4.3.1.      Iquitos- Perú

 

Iquitos is currently operating as a regular radiosonde site. It has a Vaisala system and observations are being made 4 days a week (Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays).

 

 

Fig 4. The proposed radiosonde sites with respect to the current PACS-SONET network is shown here.    

 

 

Iquitos is in a region affected by mesoscale phenomena of local and regional interest, thus it is necessary to complement the days during which no radiosonde observations are made.  The additional information would allow for the study of the transport of moist and warm air masses, which are associated with cloud formation affecting the region. It would also help to improve the weather forecasts that are now being made for the eastern part of Peru and Ecuador.

 

4.3.2.     Santa Cruz, Bolivia

 

No radiosonde observations are being made in Bolivia.

 

Santa Cruz is a strategic location to fill a gap in the radiosonde network.  Currently there is an old vaisala radiosonde equipment at the Viru Viru airport, which is not working due to missing parts. PACS-SONET provided additional equipment that could be used to implement radiosonde observations.

 

A proposal was made to implement radiosonde observations at this station mainly during the austral summer and potentialy at other times of the year.

 

4.3.3.      Mariscal Estigarribia, Paraguay

 

As part of their modernization plan, Paraguay acquired a radiosonde system with hidrogen generator that was installed in Mariscal Estigarribia. Shortly after its installation, the generator failed and, for that reason, observations are not being made in Estigarribia since more than a year ago. During SALLJEX, radiosondes were launched using helium cylinders.

 

It was suggested that radiosonde launches at this site be made every other day between October and May in order to evaluate the variability of the atmospheric circulations during the rainy season.

 

4.3.4.     Managua, Nicaragua

 

Nicaragua does not have any radiosonde stations.  It was recommended that a radiosonde site be implemented at the airport of Managua and observations be made every two days during the months of May to October.  This would provide more information on the atmospheric circulation variability over the region during the rainy season.

 

4.3.5.     Isla Malpelo- Colombia

 

Currently there is no radiosonde station at the site.  The proposed observations would be made during a 6 month period (May- October) in this site.

 

 

4.4 Final Proposal

 

After considering all the stations above as possible radiosonde sites, the group reached the following conclusions.

 

The group discarded the possibility of implementing new stations in Managua and Iquitos because the impact of these in the present radiosonde network would be small in comparison to other locations.  The implementation of the station of Mariscal Estigarribia was discarded because of its proximity to the station of Santa Cruz and given the costs of implementing each station.

 

In the case of Managua, duplicity would exist with the radiosonde station located in San Jose, Costa Rica.  On the other hand, the costs related to operating the station in Managua would be elevated.

 

Iquitos, on the other hand, is relatively close to Leticia,  from where daily radiosonde launches are made. Also, considering that radiosonde observations are already being made every other day at Iquitos, it was suggested that the impact of making daily radiosonde observations at this site would be minimum.

 

Figure 5 shows the locations of Isla Malpelo and Iquitos, where radiosonde observations are proposed with support from PACS-SONET.

 

 

 

Fig. 5  Radiosonde stations proposed (blue crosses).  In red is the current network. The radiosonde stations at Chihuahua, Veracruz and Socorro Island, Mexico are not shown in the map.

 

Chapter 5: EDUCATION

 

The main objective of this chapter is to propose different options to utilize the money allocated for education of people involved in the project.  In the final proposal there is an amount of $17,000.00.  The amount needed for workshops is not included in this amount.

 

5.1  Evaluation of the different options

 

Five different options to spend the money available for PACS-SONET in educational activities  have been considered.  Among these options are the workshops, long term scholarships, short term scholarships, visits to NSSL and preparation of materials to be distributed

 

5.1.1 Workshops

 

The workshop is a means to disseminate knowledge to a large audience since a number of participants from different regions can be invited to participate.  This stimulates an exchange of ideas  and leads to a consensus or balance of the different opinions about the decisions that will made concerning the  future of the network.

 

People invited to the workshop are willing to become a link between the project and the institution where they come from.  They would try to increase awareness of the project and to increase the utilization of the data for forecasting and research activities.

 

Proposals

 

It is suggested that workshops should try to emphasize the importance of the network for the different countries as well as the importance of the data.  It is also suggested that at least two research  works done utilizing the PACS-SONET data should be presented.   Also it is suggested to form groups that would try to find solutions to concrete problems of the network.  A document should be prepared at the end of such meeting.

 

Location for a meeting

 

If all the countries participating in the network will be participating, it  is important to select a city that is centrally located as far as the air traffic is concerned.  This would minimize ticket costs for the participants travelling to the meeting.  It is best to select a place that is away from big cities in order to maximize the work of the participants during the workshop and to avoid distractions.  Some cities that could be recommended due to their central location or because they are not too expensive are Lima-Peru and Quito-Ecuador.

 

            Frequency of meetings

 

If all the countries in the network send participants to a meeting, the meetings then could take place  every 18 months or even every two years.  This way some money could be saved that could be used for other activities.  It is suggested that in the meantime people from the different countries could stay in touch via a forum which would be implemented in the PACS-SONET homepage. 

 

Participants

 

It is considered that one or maximum 2 people from each country should participate.  Also 2 people from Norman should also be included for a total of about 25 people maximum.  As far as the per diem is concerned it is recommended to reduce them as much as possible in order to maximize the use of the money available.  Lower per diem would mean that people really interested in the subject would want to participate.

 

Invitations

 

It has been determined that it is best to send the invitations directly to the people being invited in order to guarantee that these people would be the ones attending the workshop.

 

Future Workshops and Research

 

 

Within the activities for the next workshop, it was proposed to call for papers where PACS-SONET data has been used.  The different papers would be evaluated and would be posted on the web page.  Two of papers could be selected to be presented at the workshop by the authors.

 

5.1.2       Long term scholarships

 

Another option that may be worth considering is using part of the project's money to provide two long term scholarships.  These would be for bachelor's  degrees in Meteorology or could be for graduate work.  It was considered more useful to have scholarships at the undergraduate level because the graduate degrees may take longer to complete. 

 

Possible candidates for the scholarships could be members of the different institutions participating in the project.  It was noted that many members of the weather services only have a 3 year degree at a technical level.  It was considered possible that some of these people could get the undergraduate degree in the US without taking a full 4 years.

 

Among the options for places where the selected candidates could go were:  University of Costa Rica, the University of Oklahoma, the University of Miami, the University of Buenos Aires and the University of Sao Paulo.  The details of possible expenses associated with this activity have been included in this document.

 

a-     Short-term scholarships

 

Another alternative could be short-term scholarships during which selected individuals could work with the PACS-SONET data .  This also includes developing educational materials that could be later  distributed.

 

5.1.3       Visits to NSSL

 

Another possibility is to  invite different individuals from the participating countries to visit NSSL in Norman Oklahoma for short periods (up to 3 months).  During their stay people would also work with the PACS-SONET data and could help improve the WebPages. 

 

b-     Visits from PACS-SONET personnel to countries in Latin America

 

It was considered useful to have at least two people responsible for running the project visit the different countries participating in the network.  The main objective of these visits would be to inform and coordinate with members of the different participating institutions.

 

c-     Dissemination of PACS-SONET products

 

It was considered important to disseminate the different PACS-SONET activities through the publication of bulletins or newsletters.  These newsletters  would be distributed to the different research centers in the region.

 

Also considered were the dissemination of materials and information via de web page of the project.  This could be done  by including articles and relevant research as PDF or Word files. 

 

There is a great need for developing tutorials that can be placed in the web page.  Some tutorials could be about quality control of the data., the use of theodolites, different techniques that can be used to work with the PACS-SONET data (correlations, calculations of means, anomalies etc).  Also a tutorials explaining how to utilize all the information available in the PACS-SONET homepage would be useful.  

 

 

 

 

5.2 Costs

 

Below is a short description of the expenses for the different educational and training options mentioned above.

 

5.2.1       Workshop

 

Table five  show the cost of a workshop.  Some of the expenses are flexible and depend in part on the locations selected for the activity.  There is the option of having a workshop in North America and a workshop in South America but it is not being considered in the expenses analysis.

 

A workshop in Lima was considered for the cost calculations below.  The budget is about $20000.  This workshop would have an estimated 23  participants,  would last 7 days and it would be done every two years.

 

Cost per participant

Daily cost/

person

# participants

#days/times

Total cost

Ticket Norman-Lima

900.00

  2

1

1800.00

Perdiem in Norma

7.00

2

7

98.00

Tickets participants

650.00

14

1

9100.00

Perdiem-participants

6.00

14

7

588.00

Airport transport

40.00

14

1

560.00

Perdiem local participants

6.00

5

7

210.00

 

Tickets local particip

180.00

2

1

360.00

Local transportation

7.00

21

7

1029.00

Room and board

30.00

21

7

4410.00

Total cost/person

 

 

 

18,155.00

 

 

Fixed expenses

 Cost/

person

Amount

Total cost

Internet connection

19.00

5

95.00

Purchases

200.00

1

200.00

Copy and printer rental

500.00

1

500.00

Helium for balloons

50.00

1

50.00

Various

1000.00

1

1000.00

Total fixed costs

 

 

1,845.00

 

 

Grand total

 

              

20,000.00

 

Table 5.  Estimated costs for a biannual workshop for 23 people with a 7 day duration.

 

Foreign participants:            12

Local participants:                7

Best paper winners:              2

Total participants:              23

 

5.2.2       Supporting a bachelor's degree student in Argentina

 

The yearly expenses for a student in Argentina working on an undergraduate degree in Meteorology are shown on table 6.  The degree takes 6 years and the cost is about $26, 760

 

                       

Fixed expenses:                    Phone, water, electricity

$            360.00

Rent               

$          1200.00

Food                          

$          1200.00

Misc materials                                  

$            100.00

Miscelaneous expenses:.    Tickets etc

$          1200.00

Insurance       

$            400.00

TOTAL                                  

$          4460.00

 

            Table 6.  Estimaded expenses for a biannual workshop for 23 people for 7 days

 

5.2.3       Supporting an undergraduate student in Brazil

 

Supporting a student at the University of Sao Paulo would cost approximately $14,000 for the four years that takes to finish the degree.

 

5.2.4       Short scholarships

 

A possibility exists for supporting long distance learning for participants in the different countries.  The amount estimated would be about $1500.

 

5.2.5       Visits to Norman

 

It was estimated a cost of $5565 per person for three months

 

 

Tickets

1300

Visa Expenses

165

Insurance

300

Monthly expenses

3600

Various

200

Total

5565

           

 

Table 7.  Expenses associated with short visits to Norman for one person for three months.

 

 

5.2.6       Visits of PACS-SONET managers to different countries in

Latin America

 

It was estimated a cost of about $5900 for a visit from two people from Norman to a particular country.  See table 9

 

 

Per person

 

Tickets

1300

Various

200

Perdiem

700

Total

2200

Table 8. Estimated expenses for a visit to one country in Latin America.   

 

Per country

 

2 visitors

4400

Materials and organization

1500

Total

5900

 

 

Table 8.  Estimated cost of a one person visit one country in Latin America

 

                         


Chapter 6:       PACS-SONET web page and communications

 

This chapter evaluates the current status of the web page and proposes some changes that would optimize the public's access to the page.

 

6.1    Current situation of the web

 

The current web page has been maintained mainly by Javier Murillo.  This page is fairly functional and has useful information such as the wind data generated by the network, satellite imagery and links.

 

            Wind Data.

 

Wind data is shown in real time with maps.  Also included are the radiosondes in Latin America in real time.  Also shown is the historical wind data, which include all the information collected from the beginning of PACS-SONET.  The radiosonde data is not being archived.  Finally there are some graphics of time series and monthly means of wind.  Access to all this information is via the project's homepage.

 

Satellite Imagery

 

JOSS and UCAR have been collaborating with PACS-SONET by providing high resolution satellite imagery  for some sectors of South America for which it is not easy to find this materials.  The homepage includes the images corresponding to the last three days, visible and infrared channel.  High resolution images from the Venezuelan, Bolivian and Paraguay is also included.  Also included are the images for the Caribbean and, Mexico and the central region of South America.  Also included is an oceanic sector in front of Chile, which will complement the marine boundary layer studies that will take place as part of VEPIC.

 

Previous experiments, network extensions and workshops

 

Throughout the homepage one can access information about previous experiments associated with PACS-SONET, network extensions, workshops.  Some of the experiments are SWAMP 90 and EMVER 93.  Also included are the 1997-98 PACS-SONET El Niño extension, SALLJEX 2002-03, the Lake Titicaca workshop, EXPANA 2001 and the San Ignacio workshop.

 

History of PACS-SONET

 

Included here is a summary of the history of the project, the initial network and its evolution 

 

Recoverable sondes

 

PACS-SONET is interested in developing a recoverable radiosonde system known as "Powersonde".  Included here is a link that show the motivation for that project and the results of some of the testing that has been done in South Africa.

 

Preliminary Research

 

Also included is some research done with the PACS-SONET data. The data is complemented with other materials such as the NCEP reanalysis.

 

6.2       Suggested modifications and feasibility

 

A group of participants made the following suggestions in order the improve the structure of the web page, its clarity and information accessibility.  The comments have been divided in groups.

 

6.2.1.     Modifications to the main page

 

1.      To incorporate a map of the network, which would include a flow chart of the web page.  This suggestion was considered feasible and will be considered in the design of the new web page.

 

2.      To incorporate a forum or place where participants or interested people can participate by sending their comments about the network and the project.

 

3.      To update the page with the names of the people involved in the

project.

 

4.      To update the acknowledgement WebPages.

 

5.      To incorporate a guest book and comments. 

 

6.      To incorporate a visitor counter for the WebPages.  Also feasible although it may take time.

 

7.      To incorporate an educational section in the main page.  In this sector we would incorporate all the components related to this subject such as research, manuals, programs and tutorial, links to different pages and other important sources related to PACS-SONET. 

 

8.      To include a section where information about future activities such as workshops is mentioned.  The group though that this should be placed under the new things sections that already exists.

 

9.      To include links to all the participating institutions working with PACS-SONET.

 

6.2.2    Modifications to the satellite imageries

 

1.      It is necessary to cover the Cobija area in Bolivia.

2.      It is necessary to have a larger area that would allow an overlap between Bolivia and Paraguay.  Currently the image covers up to 20 ˚South, due to the configuration of the satellite.

3.      It would be nice to have the option to animate the images available in the WebPages.

4.      To update as early as possible the radiosonde and pilot balloon data.  The problem is the NSSL is not an operational institution and the radiosonde data is not always obtained in real time.  An option would be to find other sources of radiosonde data.

5.      If some institution involved in this project has a high-resolution satellite imagery data it would be a good idea to ask them to send us some images of regions of interest.

 

6.3.3       Modification to the data format

 

1.      To change the color of the background that show a time series of profiles from black to white, since some institutions have problems with the printing.

2.      To prepare an interactive map where one can place the cursor on a station, and also one for the wind profile.

3.      To generate a PDF file that has the maps so that printing can facilitated.

4.      To overlay the temperature, wet bulb temperature and pressure on the real time maps. 

5.      To overlay the wind data and the meteorological analysis.

6.      To prepare streamlines maps and to overlay them with the satellite imagery.  Another option is to overlay the wind data with the satellite imagery.  This is difficult to do in real time.

7.      To implement monthly means of the pilot balloons, indicating the number of observations utilized for this calculation. 

8.      To include in the inventory that was prepared by Javier, how high the balloons made it.

9.      It was mentioned that it is difficult to find radiosonde data so it would be a good idea to include a link in the main page that would lead directly to the radiosonde maps.

10. To generate ZIP files for the historical data, so that it will be easier to down load them.  Currently Javier had prepared ZIP files for some of the PACS-SONET data.

 

6.2.3       Miscellaneous suggestions

 

1.      To make links to the main pages of SENAMHI- Peru.

2.      To eliminate the underline of the web page links

3.      To place in a more visible area the link to the page that gives the position of the stars.

4.      To initiate a contest for designing a PACS-SONET logo

 

6.3       Final Suggestions

 

6.3.1.     Modifications to the current web page have been made and this includes a new main page design.  This page should ideally include a satellite image or map that shows information in real time.  The map with the PACS-SONET stations would also become an interactive map that would provide a link to the historical data for the network.

 

Also a place would be provided as well as  a forum for people mention their comments and suggestions.

 

This proposal has organized the links and the page has been subdivided into 6 different sections as well as the links mentioned previously.

 

Wind Maps              

 

Would include all the information related to the pilot balloon observations and the radiosondes.  There would be 5 links.  One link would be an interactive map that would show each station with a link to the historical data.  Also a link to the PACS-SONET data in real time and a link to the data inventory for PACS-SONET.  Also a link to the inventory of the SALLJEX data and finally a link to the means and time series prepared with the network data.

 

Education

 

This area would include all subjects related to education.  Here we could include links to pages with manuals, tutorials, programs etc.  Also would include a link to the web pages of work done using the PACS-SONET data in other institutions. 

 

Satellite Imagery

 

Would have 8 links: Mexico, Caribbean, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguay, South America, Pacific Ocean and also a link to the historical images.

 

 

Activities

 

The section for activities would be the most extensive in the page and would include links to the recoverable radiosonde "powersonde", extension of the network (El Niño 1997-98) and SALLJEX), previous experiments (SWAMP/EMVER), workshops and training.  Also would include an agenda of upcoming activities.

 

Miscellaneous or PACS-SONET

 

This section would have a brief history of the project, a photo gallery, participants involved, links to participating institutions and a page with links of interest.

 

New

 

This section would include the central area of the web page and here we would place calls for papers and various. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

Fig 6.  Main page of the PACS-Sonet web page proposed during the workshop in 2003

 

6.3.2    Flow Chart

 

 

 

Fig.8. Flow chart proposed for the new web page..

 

A flow chart has been included which shows the tentative structure of the new web page, separating the 6 sections with different colors.  This diagram does not include the details.  Links to other pages have been included as an "L" and also email addresses.

 

6.4       Current status of communications

 

There are some problems which may be solvable, except with some specific stations such as Puerto Madero, that does not send data in real time because internet is not available at the site.

 

Ciudad Bolivar in Venezuela also has problems.  The possibility exists for moving this station.

 

Another option is to include an option to submit the data via the web page with a CGI program.  The problem with this is that we lack personnel at the moment that knows how to do this.  To do this it may take about 6 months.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER 7:  LOGISTICS
 
The purpose of this chapter is to present/display the problems and necessities that exist in the field of the logistics, and consequently to contribute ideas to solve them.  Antecedents, problems and solutions for each country are included.
 
7.1     Bolivia

 

7.1.1 Antecedents. 

 

In Bolivia, the six (06) stations of PACS-SONET operate with helium.  A helium gas cylinder costs 220 dollars.  They inflate around 33 to 35 globes per cylinder.  There is only one gas company in Bolivia, but with 2 distribution centers:  one in La Paz and the other in Santa Cruz.  Santa Cruz supplies gas to Trinidad, Roboré and Santa Cruz.  La Paz supplies gas to Uyuni, La Paz and Cobija.
 
 
7.1.2 Problems and necessities in Bolivia. 

 

Gas:  Gas is the main problem in Bolivia.  The main disadvantages include the high price of helium,  the difficulty to use hydrogen due to local regulations,  the troublesome customs proceedings that the importation of gas from Brazil generates,  the difficulty of the redistribution of the helium cylinders that are given solely in the capitals and cannot be transported neither by train nor by airplane to Cobija and Roboré, specially during the rainy season when the roads are flooded, and  the low availability of helium cylinders.  The gas company in Santa Cruz works on a exchange-only basis.  The industry that produces gas provides certain amount of cylinders, but at certain moment it requires the return of the empty ones before providing more gas.
 
Problems with observations:  When the observer visualizes a cloudy ceiling (300-500 m approximately), he often prefers not to make the observation to save gas.  Also, problems with strong winds exist, which make difficult to make the observations regularly.  Unlike other stations, observations are made in La Paz and Uyuni the 30 or 31 days of the month thanks to weak winds and fair skies conditions.
 
Bank transfers:  Delays in the transfer of funds exist.  Stations like Santa Cruz already lost the credit with the gas company, so that if the money does not arrive, observations are lost.
 
Limited budget:  AASANA not only maintains the pilot balloon network. It also maintains a network of 33 synoptic surface stations and it would be interested in financing the pilot balloon network in the future.  The main problem is that it has a very limited budget.
 
Motivation of the observers:  In general, they have responsible and persistent observers, but still some motivation problems exist.
 
7.1.3       Proposed solutions for Bolivia.

 

Gas.  It was proposed that Cobija be supplied with gas brought from Rio Branco, Brazil.  Also, La Paz could be supplied with gas brought from Arequipa, Peru.  The SENAMHI personnel has made consultations with PRAXAIR Peru in Arequipa, and they do not foresee any problems with these gas transfers.  This way, savings would be attained in the purchase of gas.  As far as problems with transportation, there is a bus company that goes once per week to Robore.  A greater number of cylinders should be sent to Cobija and Robore during the rainy season to avoid problems with bad routes.
 
Problems with observations:  Making the pilot balloon soundings in Santa Cruz in hours of afternoon instead of the morning in order to avoid short or no soundings due to cloudy skies.  This option must be carefully considered. 
 
Transfers of funds:  Coordinations must be made with the banks so that the transfers are speeded up.
 
Likewise, it is necessary to elaborate the transfers with greater anticipation, for which an advanced request or reminder on the part of AASANA to PACS-SONET of the necessity of a new transfer is required.
 
Motivation of the observers:  The observers main incentive is their participation in workshops and field activities.  In any case, it is proposed to raise some type of additional incentive in order to increase the motivation to continue with the observations.

 

7.2. Colombia

 

7.2.1. Antecedents.

 

In Colombia, the training of new CIOH personnel in pilot balloon observations has been anticipated. There are currently 13 people already on training, some of them will be directly involved in PACS-SONET activities at the end of the present year.

 

In other CIOH units (Capitanías de Puerto), located along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts, there already exists personnel trained to undertake the work in case it is decided to establish new pilot balloon stations there.

 

In Colombia, one person has been made responsible for the PACS-SONET coordination as part of his regular duties. This person devotes 70% of his time to the project’s activities. It has been defined as a strategy to improve its efficiency, to consider PACS-SONET activities within the functions of the Division de Oceanografia (Oceanography division) and not only within those of the Meteorology section. It is expected that with this strategy, more personnel will be assigned to help with the observations.

 

7.2.2. Problems and necessities in Colombia

 

No significant problems have been currently identified.

 

 

7.2.3. Proposed solutions for Colombia.

 

Memoranda of Understanding with IDEAM. There exists the need to interact with IDEAM (the Colombian national weather service), making use of current colaboration agreements between the two institutions.

 

Gas: It was proposed that a document be prepared explaining how the country benefits from the project; the acquisition of gas should be considered, with the objective of keeping the gas costs from being paid for by the PACS-SONET.

 

It is expected that the work being done in Colombia related to the PACS-SONET activities will have an improvement of 90% as an outcome of the workshop. 

 

 

7.3. Ecuador.

 

7.3.1. Antecedents.

 

Pacs-sonet began its activities in Ecuador granting an incentive to the observers, who became accustomed to it.  At some point, the Ecuadorian weather service (INAMHI) informed that they could not pay the observers more wages since its pay was already covered.  The observers indicated that they were not going to do more work unless an additional compensation were granted to them.  Observers are currently getting more pressure from INAMHI and Internet and computer courses are being offered to them as a motivation method.

 

At the present time INAMHI counts on hydrogen generators.  It is hoped that, in the long term, the project will be self supported, but first it is necessary to show results.  At the moment, the INAMHI, like the country as a whole, lacks conditions to afford the expenses of the network.  The available budget is spent mainly on pays of employees.

 

A problem that occurred recently, although already solved, was the rupture of the crosshairs reticule in the theodolite.  This one was sent to Quito for its repair and sent back to Galapagos later.

 

7.3.2. Problems and necessities in Ecuador.

 

Density of the network: The INAMHI requires an upper-air station, additional to the one in Galapagos Islands, in order to be able to supplement the continental effects with the maritime effects.

 

Research work: Research work has to be produced to promote the network’s self-financing in the country.

 

 

7.3.3. Solutions and Proposals for Ecuador.

 

Density of the network: A proposal was made to improve the density of the network. However, it appears that the cost per observation is too high in Ecuador and a new station could not be installed.

 

Research work: The development of tutorials and dissemination of research work via Internet are being included in the proposal.

 

 

7.4. Mexico.

 

7.4.1. Antecedents.

 

There are 7 pilot balloon stations in México. Puerto Madero makes observations as scheduled. However, the persons formerly in charge of the project have now retired; therefore, a detailed follow up on the station's data has not been made. These data, though being recorded, are not being transmitted to NSSL in real time. Presently, the situation is being straightened up since movements of personnel are coming to an end. The goal is to resume real-time transmissions shortly.

 

This year there was an internal problem with gas provision.  At the Mexican Navy, the office in charge of provisions received the request; this remained misplaced, and the stations began to indicate that they were going to see themselves forced to suspend the launchings.

 

In Mexico it does not exist a problem with the personnel, nor a problem of stimuli.

 

7.4.2. Problems and necessities in Mexico.

 

Equipment: In Salina Cruz a problem with the theodolite exists, which does not allow to track the balloons beyond minute 22 to 25.  Options to solve this problem are: sending the theodolite to México City, or dispatching personnel to Salina Cruz to repair it.  At this moment a person does not exist in the region who knows how to repair theodolites.

 

Local shippment of balloons: Another problem is that the local shipment of balloons to the stations is done through DHL. This transport is quite slow, taking more than two weeks for the balloons to arrive.  For example, to Puerto Penasco there exists a delay of almost 3 days from Mexico City. Unlike this one, Veracruz is 2 hours away and Salina Cruz, 14 hours.  The distribution of balloons depends strongly on the distance.

 

Licence to distribute gas: The main problem in Puerto Penasco is the gas, because a license is needed to distribute it.  The purchase of a license for gas in Puerto Penasco is expensive.  The licenses are sold by INFRA or PRAXAIR.  The nearest places to acquire gas are Mexicali o Sonoyta.

 

Problems with observations: Lately some irregularities have been observed in Topolobampo, which has been one of the most consistent stations of the network.  One of the apparent causes is the location of a nearby thermoelectric plant.  The smoke plume from the plant affects the tracking of the balloon.

 

 

7.4.3. Solutions and proposals for México.

 

Equipment: To send a person who knows how to repair theodolites to Salina Cruz.  Still better if the person is involved in PACS-SONET activities.  It would be ideal if he/she can train the observers in Salina Cruz in the repair of theodolites.

 

Local shipment of balloons: Local shipment of balloons should be made with greater anticipation, informing to NSSL in a timely manner on the necessity to send more balloons to the Mexican Navy.  It is necessary also to make a rational distribution of balloons sent to the stations, based on statistics of soundings made at each site.

 

Licence to distribute gas. Acquisition of gas in Mexicali or Sonoyta. Contact the local companies that might be interested in obtaining a licence to distribute gas and capable of assuring timely gas delivery to the Naval Base in Puerto Peñasco.

 

Problems with observations: This problem does not occur so frequently. If it continues to occur, it would be necessary to verify if it is indeed a problem related to the thermoelectric plant and then a solution should be proposed.

 

 

7.5. Nicaragua.

 

7.5.1. Antecedents.

 

The station in Managua is required to complement the network in Central America and to fill in the gap in the radiosonde network between Belice and Costa Rica. Hydrogen gas is utilized in Nicaragua. The observations are currently suspended due to lack of resources.

 

 

7.5.2. Problems and necessities in Nicaragua.

 

Money transfers: The funds take a lot of time to arrive and Nicaragua's current situation does not allow them to pay for the observations. Due to the financial crisis that is presently affecting the country, the institution's budget has been cut down.

 

Balloon shipping: There exists too much bureaucracy in customs procedures.

 

7.5.3. Proposed solutions for Nicaragua.

 

Money transfers: Advise on the necessity of a new money transfer.

 

Balloon shipping: It should be made through the embassy.

 

 

7.6. Paraguay.

 

7.6.1. Antecedents.

 

Paraguay is currently in the middle of a transition period because a new elected government is taking over. Most problems relate to the operation of the station in Mariscal Estigarribia rather than with Asunción. The problems are undefined. Currently, with the recent changes in the government, a new team of observers is being dispatched to Mariscal Estigarribia and it is hoped that efficiency will be improved with new personnel. In Asuncion, the situation is much more stable.

 

7.6.2. Problems and necessities in Paraguay.

 

Motivation of the observers: The measurements in Mariscal Estigarrigia stopped since SALLJEX due to lack of skilfull personnel on site.

 

Late Transfers: The transfers of funds to Paraguay take a long time.

 

 

7.6.3. Proposed solutions for Paraguay.

 

Motivation of the observers: DINAC has funds to cover certain expenses; one possibility would be to offer certain trade-in as an incentive to make the soundings. The WMO funds have been cut down significantly. However, the area where more resources are offered is research. With the purpose of motivating the observers, support from DINAC could be asked to cover transportation for them. Another option to motivate the observers is have them interact in some way with the forecasters, so that they realize the real importance of the observations.

 

Late transfers: Advise with due anticipation on the need to make a transfer of funds.

 

Balloon costs: The possibility exists for the DINAC to pay for the balloons. Although the feasibility of this possibility is unknown. The reality may be different.

 

 

7.7. Peru.

 

7.7.1. Antecedents.

 

Gas in Peru is inexpensive. One hydrogen cylinder costs about US$ 30. The overall cost of the observations is low. Currently upper air observations are made in Arequipa (pilot balloon), Piura (radiosonde in the morning, pilot balloon in the afternoon), Puerto Maldonado (radiosonde) and Iquitos (radiosonde). In Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado, the radiosonde observations are made on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays, as it has been agreed upon with the WMO. With regard to radiosonde purchases, these are ordered with months in advance from the Vaisala representative and the sondes arrive within 3 months after they are ordered. The cost of a GPS sonde in Peru is about US$ 130. PACS-SONET will provide SENAMHI participants with some Vaisala RS80-15N sondes that they will test for posible use in Iquitos.

 

SENAMHI does not have personnel in Puerto Maldonado nor Pucallpa. Air Force personnel is helping with these stations by agreement between the two institutions. There has never been problems with personnel and the soundings are considered as part of their normal duties.

 

 

7.7.2. Problems and necessities in Peru.

 

Real-time transmission of the data: During SALLJEX, there were problems in Pucallpa with the transmission of the data in real time and this problem currently exists also in Puerto Maldonado since both sites are relatively far from population centers.

 

Balloon shipping: In Peru, 40% is charged in customs fees, thus balloon shipping constitutes the highest cost.

 

Duplicate information: In Piura, the information is currently being duplicated since pilot balloon soundings are being made in addition to radiosonde observations.

 

 

7.7.3. Proposed solutions for Peru.

 

 

Balloon Shipping: PAWAN balloons (Indian brand name) have been tested in Peru and these turned out to be inexpensive and efficient. These balloons attained altitudes of 25 km. The idea is to ask this company to make a quote. They send samples if requested in case tests are required.

 

Duplicate information: (¿?)

 

Transmisión of data to Washington: They used to transmit radiosonde data to Argentina via FTP. They are not currently sending the data, thus the observations are not being assimilated into the NCEP analyses. It was proposed the collaboration with the Venezuelan Air Force meteorological service in Maracay, Venezuela, which has been designated to function as a WMO regional Center, so they can receive and retransmit the data to Washington, D.C.

 

 

7.8. Venezuela.

 

7.8.1. Antecedents.

 

There are two pilot balloon stations in Venezuela. There were problems in both stations during December and January due to a national strike. The situation is currently more stable.

 

As an additional information, it was mentioned that the VENEMHET is a very ambitious project including a broad radiosonde network. Fortunately, the planned stations are far from the current pilot balloon stations. The purchase of 5 weather radars is also planned as part of the VENEMHET. The projects budget is at about 62 million dolars and is funded by the Sociedad Andina de Fomento. This year, the Instituto Nacional de Meteorología will be created in Venezuela.

 

7.8.2. Problems y necessities in Venezuela.

 

Problems with observations: In Ciudad Bolivar, a problem exists with the cloudiness during morning hours.

 

Data Transmissions: In the station at Ciudad Bolivar, a fixed budget exists for telephone service. Apparently, the Internet service provider in the zone charges very high rates because of the high costs of the telephone communications.

 

 

7.8.3. Proposed solutions for Venezuela.

 

Observations and data transmission: One possibility is moving the station in Ciudad Bolivar to other location.

 

Gas: It is hoped that Venezuela will be able to assume the gas costs within the next year. This point has been spoken out with the authorities and a decision is expected shortly on this respect.

 

 

 


 

CAPITULO 8:  APOYO DE INSTITUCIONES LOCALES
 

 

A continuación se presenta un resumen por actividades realizadas en contrapartida por parte de las entidades que colaboran con PACS-SONET. Algunas de las actividades no solo son las que actualmente se desarrollan en la red, sino también, las propuestas en su nueva extensión.

 

 

Tabla 9.   Apoyo a PACS-SONET de cada institucion por rubro.

 

 

8.1 Argentina

 

Apoyo actual

 

Argentina no opera estaciones de globo piloto actualmente. Sin embargo, el país ha participado con 8 estaciones de globo piloto durante SALLJEX con buen rendimiento y eficiencia. Los resultados preliminares de análisis de los datos están indicando contribuciones importantes en la caracterización del LLJ y fenómenos asociados.

 

Propuesta

 

Argentina propone instalar dos estaciones, y contribuir con recursos humanos para aplicar los datos a la investigación y educación. También se dispone de infraestructura computacional y edilicia.

 

Asimismo, puede colaborar con el control de datos, su procesamiento y asistencia a estaciones, insumos y logística. Dado que el desarrollo y logro de los objetivos de proyectos de investigación dependen fuertemente de la adquisición de datos observacionales, se han presentado solicitudes de financiación a la Universidad de Buenos Aires, lo que permitiría solventar gastos parciales de sostenimiento de observaciones de globo piloto.

 

Se presentaran propuestas en la medida en que aparezcan convocatorias nacionales e internacionales para la financiación de proyectos de investigación.

 

 

8.2 Bolivia

 

Apoyo actual

 

Bolivia colabora con PACS-SONET operando seis estaciones de globo piloto. La institucion encargada es AASANA, quien apoya al proyecto con personal que realiza las observaciones dentro de sus labores diarias en cada estacion; infraestructura completa para el lanzamiento de globos; costo del servicio de fax en Cobija, Trinidad y Robore; disposicion de los vehiculos de la institucion; apoyo gratuito de los responsables de PACS-SONET en Bolivia; mantemiento de equipos en un taller acondicionado por la institucion y el proyecto de manera conjunta.

 

PACS-SONET apoya en la compra del gas, incentivos, gastos administrativos y parcialmente en el uso de telefonos e internet.

 

Propuesta

 

Bolivia esta pensando implementar la estacion de Yacuiba utilizando medios economicos locales. Esta estacion estaria totalmente financiada por AASANA.

 

 

8.3 Brasil

 

Apoyo actual

 

Brasil no opera estaciones de globo piloto de PACS-SONET. Sin embargo, este pais participó en extensiones temporales de la red, administrando estaciones de globo piloto y mediante su cooperación científica.

 

Propuesta

 

No se tiene pensado instalar ninguna estacion por el momento.

 

 

8.4    Colombia

 

Apoyo actual

 

En Colombia, el CIOH es la institucion encargada de la operacion de la estacion de globo piloto en Cartagena. Se encarga del salario de dos personas dedicadas diariamente a las actividades propias del lanzamiento de globo piloto, en lo que tiene que ver con el alistamiento, lanzamiento y toma de datos; procesamiento, almacenamiento, organización y envío de los mismos.

 

Asimismo, se encarga de cubrir el mantenimiento del equipo utilizado, principalmente teodolitos y trípodes, para los que se efectuan labores de reparación, mantenimiento, adecuaciones técnicas de elementos o piezas que requieran ser reemplazadas por causa de daño, desgaste o deterioro de material; computadores: Mantenimiento y reparación técnica de equipo de cómputo indispensable para el procesamiento, manejo, almacenamiento y envío de datos recolectados en el lanzamiento de globos pilotos; línea de Internet: Reparación y mantenimiento del sistema de Internet por daños surgidos y que impidan el desarrollo adecuado de las actividades de PACS-SONET en el CIOH. Finalmente, cubre los costos de internet y tambien los imprevistos.

 

PACS-SONET apoya solamente en la compra del gas.

 

Propuesta

 

Se esta pensando implementar dos estaciones de globo piloto, para lo cual la propuesta de ayuda permaneceria igual por el momento.

 

 

8.5    Ecuador

 

Apoyo actual

 

En Ecuador, el Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INAMHI) se encarga de los sondeos de globo piloto en la estacion de San Cristobal. INAMHI apoya a PACS-SONET brindando infraestructura, un generador de hidrogeno para el inflado de globos, apoyo de las autoridades ejecutivas en las decisiones de coordinación con el proyecto y finalmente personal calificado, que sin embargo, recibe parte de su sueldo con dinero de PACS-SONET.

 

PACS-SONET envia dinero para incentivos, gastos administrativos, electricidad, uso de instalaciones, mantenimiento del equipo e imprevistos.

 

Otra institucion que ha colaborado activamente con PACS-SONET es la ESPOL. Ella se encargo de la estacion de Guayaquil hasta que cesaron los sondeos por motivos de nubosidad. ESPOL lidera muchas de las investigaciones científicas que requieren datos meteorológicos, y utiliza los datos de globos pilotos para complementar sus análisis, que son difundidos quincenalmente cuando existen condiciones “ENSO” presentes. Su principal interés esta relacionado al impacto de eventos climáticos extremos sobre los sectores socio-económicos más importantes del país.

 

Propuesta

 

ESPOL está muy interesada en trabajar con la red PACS-SONET, teniendo en cuenta que anteriormente han estado relacionados y el trabajo se ha desarrollado en  buena forma.  ESPOL pone a disposición del proyecto el apoyo de personal, infraestructura y recursos para el desarrollo de futuros eventos.

 

 

8.6 Nicaragua

 

Apoyo actual

 

En Nicaragua, la institucion encargada de los lanzamientos de globo piloto es el INETER. Ella colabora con PACS-SONET  proporcionando infraestructura para realizar la observacion incluyendo una bodega de almacenamiento, internet para el envio de datos via FTP, apoyo de las autoridades ejecutivas en las decisiones de coordinación con el proyecto e imprevistos.

 

El gas, desaduanaje, incentivos y gastos administrativos son cubiertos por PACS-SONET.

 

Propuesta

 

Continuar apoyando como se hace en la actualidad.

 

 

8.7    México

 

Apoyo actual

 

En Mexico, SEMAR es la institucion encargada de los sondeos de globo piloto. El personal de cada estacion se encarga del lanzamiento de los globos dentro de sus labores rutinarias. SEMAR se encarga del gas, el transporte de los cilindros, mantenimiento de los equipos, costos de electricidad, permite el uso de sus instalaciones, y tambien se encarga de los imprevistos.

 

Los gastos de desaduanaje, telefono e internet son cubiertos por PACS-SONET.

 

Propuesta

 

Continuar apoyando como se hace en la actualidad.

 

 

8.8    Paraguay

 

Apoyo actual

 

Paraguay colabora con PACS-SONET de varias maneras. La institucion encargada de la operación de las estaciones de sondeo de globo piloto es el Servicio Meteorologico, el que opera las estaciones de Asuncion y Mariscal Estigarribia. El apoya con infraestructura, personal que realiza las observaciones dentro de sus obligaciones diarias, pago de telefono, mantenimiento del equipo, costos de desaduanaje e imprevistos.

 

PACS-SONET cubre los costos del gas, incentivos, gastos administrativos y uso del internet de manera parcial.

 

Por otro lado, el Laboratorio de Investigación de la Atmósfera y Problemas Ambientales (LIAPA) de la Universidad de Asuncion colabora activamente con el proyecto, proporcionando personal tecnico, estudiantes para la investigacion aplicada y una pagina web local para PACS-SONET. Finalmente, existe un enlace y coordinacion con el Club de Aeromodelismo Asunción para continuar con las pruebas relacionadas al desarrollo del Powersonde.

 

Propuesta

 

Continuar apoyando como se hace en la actualidad.

 

 

8.9    Peru

 

Apoyo actual

 

Las instituciones encargadas de los sondeos de globo piloto son la Universidad de Piura (UDEP) y el Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia (SENAMHI).

 

Se brinda apoyo en recursos humanos para dos (02) estaciones de globo piloto. Estos observadores realizan estas lecturas dentro de sus obligaciones diarias. El pago asumido por UDEP/SENAMHI equivalente a 5571 USD.

 

Tambien se brinda apoyo en cuanto a recursos materiales. Tambien se apoya con el costo de las comunicaciones (internet y telefono) en las localidades de Arequipa y Piura.

 

SENAMHI complementa la información de vientos en Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado y Piura con lanzamientos de radiosondeo. Los gastos administrativos en Arequipa son asumidos por SENAMHI.

 

PACS-SONET apoya con el desaduanaje de globos para la UDEP, el costo del gas, incentivos y gastos administrativos en la UDEP, e imprevistos en esta institucion.

 


Propuesta

 

Brindar apoyo con nueve (09) observadores para cinco (05) estaciones de globo piloto: Piura, Arequipa, Pucallpa, Iquitos y Puerto Maldonado. Tambien se piensa brindar apoyo en cuanto a recursos materiales. La estacion de Pucallpa piensa operar con un (01) teodolito de la Fuerza Aerea Peruana (FAP). Se espera colaborar con los costos de internet y telefono en la localidad de Iquitos.

 

 

8.10 Venezuela

 

Apoyo actual

 

La institucion encargada de los sondeos de globo piloto es el Servicio de Meteorología de la Aviación (SEMETAVIA).

 

Contribuye con el proyecto PACS-SONET mediante el aporte de la infraestructura necesaria para el lanzamiento de globos piloto, recurso humano, pago de teléfonos e insumos de oficina tales como papelería, gas y transporte de cilindros. Se logró que los globos pilotos sean enviados a Venezuela a través de una oficina de adquisiciones que tiene esta oficina en Miami-USA.

 

PACS-SONET ha transferido fondos para la conexión de internet, giras de mantenimiento y adquisición de un computador (PC) para el ingreso de datos históricos recolectados desde hace 20 años.

 

Propuesta

 

Continuar apoyando como se hace en la actualidad.

 



 


FINAL PROPOSAL
 

The final proposal included the implementation of 6 new pilot balloon station and 2 radiosonde sites. The new pilot balloon stations would be located in Serranilla, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Puerto Maldonado, Tostado and Santiago del Estero. The radionsonde sites would be located in Malpelo, Colombia and Santa Cruz, Bolivia (figure 9).

 

 

Figura 9. Red de estaciones de globo piloto y radiosondeos de PACS-SONET que se espera tener operando para el anho 2004.

 

Table 10 shows the amount set aside for the new pilot balloon network. The new stations are included in the budget, but the gas costs in the station of Santa Cruz have been removed from it, since it would pass to the category of radiosonde station.

 The total budget for the new pilot balloon station ascends to $77,042 annually.

 

 

 

Country

Gas and cylinder

Administration

Telephone

Internet

Utilities and use

Equipment

Shipping and,

Incidentals

Total

 

STN

transportation

Costs and labor

 

 

Of infrastructure

maintenance

Custom fees

 

 

Mexico

7

0

3960

6600

2760

0

0

2040

0

15360

Nicaragua

1

2300

3900

0

0

0

0

300

0

6500

Colombia

2

1920

1000

0

0

0

0

500

0

3420

Venezuela

2

0

1000

0

800

0

0

0

0

1800

Ecuador

1

0

1500

1200

600

3500

1500

200

360

8860

Peru

5

2558

3246

0

515

0

0

0

172

6491

Bolivia

5

11333

6060

180

700

0

0

0

300

18573

Paraguay

2

960

2700

0

0

0

0

0

300

3960

Argentina

2

8870

3208

0

0

0

0

0

0

12078

TOTAL

27

27941.33

26574

7980

5375

3500

1500

3040

1132

77042.3

Tabla 10 .  Budget for the PACS-SONET pilot balloon observations proposed during the workshop in Paraguay, in August 2003.

 

A table showing the budget for the radiosondes is not included, but the estimated total is at about $20,000 annually for both stations. The costs are expected to be higher in Santa Cruz than in Malpelo due to the high costs of gas in Bolivia.

 

Table 11 shows the integrated budget available to PACS-SONET, based on the proposal prepared. The main modifications, it can be noticed, are in the observations, incidentals ($7,000), bi-annual workshop ($10,000) and radiosonde observations ($20,000.) These modifications generate excedent resources for a total of $15,157, available for activities related to education and research, among which assistanships, short assistanships, visits to NSSL and publication of documents have been considered.

 

 

 

 

Proposal

 

FIXED

 

 

Salary

69000

 

Travel

5000

 

VARIABLE

 

 

Observations

77042.3

 

Balloons + shipping

26200

 

Miscellaneous

7000

 

 Bi-annual workshop

10000

 

Radiosondes

20000

 

Other activities

15157.7

<<< AMOUNT AVAILABLE

TOTAL AVAILABLE

229400

 

NSSL overhead

80290

 

TOTAL PACS-SONET

309690

 

 

Tabla. 11. Detailed PACS-SONET budget proposed during the workshop.